Balance disorders may be caused by a number of factors, including medications, diseases, poor muscle tone, lack of activity or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Physical therapy exercises can help increase balance, coordination, strength and stability. Exercises may include hand-eye coordination, range of motion exercises that help with proprioception (the ability to know where your body is in space) to adapt to changing position, strengthening and flexibility training.
Balance is having the correct muscles fire at the correct time and magnitude to counteract the forces of gravity or perturbations. We have three systems we use for balance: the eyes, proprioception (the ability to feel where we are in space) and the vestibular system. When all three of these systems are working correctly we have very good balance. When one of the systems are taken away or altered, we must rely on the other systems to overcome the lacking system to maintain balance.